Modernism refers to an art movement that began at the start of the 20th century and ended during the 1960s. This new movement broke away from the artistic codes of the time, codes that had been in place since the Renaissance. Modernism was embodied by a new generation of artists whose work was characterized by a variety of styles and subject choices that flew in the face of accepted convention. While, generally speaking, it challenged a number of aesthetic principles, modernism ultimately gave rise to a variety of movements and styles. Fauvism was one of the first movements to emerge from modernism, captivating viewers with its pure and intense colors. Also associated with modern art is expressionism, characterized by an often tragic and primitive vision of the world, from which cubism would be inspired. Several other artistic movements are also linked to modernism, including constructivism, abstract art, surrealism and the Dada movement, founded in Switzerland during the First World War. Modern art also found expression in architecture and sculpture. Many artists, such as Lipchitz and Archipenko for example, drew inspiration from cubism and its geometric constructions. Primitive art also represented a source of inspiration for these modernist sculptors, who favored the use of basic forms and raw materials in their works.